The Master of Tides - Amitav Ghosh

One year shy of sixty, master novelist Amitav Ghosh is one of our most triumphant storytellers, taking India to the world, and the world to India. Moving from Egypt to Cambodia, from the Sunderbans to Burma, his hunger for history has stirred a generation of readers who grew up on this alternate primer to the colonial register. This week, one of his most ambitious projects drops anchor. Flood of Fire, the painstakingly recounted culimination of Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis trilogy—an epic historical saga which begins in Mauritius and moves towards the Opium War which set China and British India against each other—is one of the literary world’s star events this year. The achievement of a decade, the Ibis trilogy has redefined a period in history some have forgotten about, or never truly seen, taking Ghosh, with his twelfth book, into the new realm of blockbuster fiction (a movie option just lapsed, Ghosh tells me, but interest is bound to mount again, with the release of this third book).
Ghosh’s work has been translated into twenty languages and he has won countless awards and accolades, including the Sahitya Akademi Award, the Ananda Purashkar, the Crossword Book Prize and a Dan David Award (shared with Margaret Atwood). Awarded the Padma Shri in 2007, he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and a Ford Foundation Art of Change fellow, and has taught and published widely in India and the USA. While the Booker has eluded him (he was shortlisted in 2008 for Sea of Poppies), and Hungarian novelist László Krasznahorkai beat him to the Man Booker International prize this year, Flood of Fire may finally take him all the way to the big prizes.
In the Taj Mansingh’s Diwan-i-Khas, Ghosh spoke to Open while nursing a bit of a cold, hankering for fresh turmeric and fresh from the beginning of his tour in England: about how the Ibis will never leave him, the legacy of race in India and his necessary efforts as a historian. Excerpts follow.

What does it feel like to have lived with the Ibis trilogy for a decade and be done with these characters, is there a sense of relief or exhilaration?

I can’t say that they have left, and I suppose that’s one of the things about doing this for ten years. They become such an intimate part of your life. I don’t really feel like they have left me, in some sense. You know, usually when you finish a book, there’s a sense of melancholy, a kind of post-partum feeling of depression. But I didn’t feel that at all with this book. I really felt a profound sense of fulfilment.
Do you have a favourite character?

I have many favourite characters in these books, often they take you by surprise. In this book, I think Mrs Burnham took me by surprise. A lot of characters just become their own people.
There’s a character like Zachary Reid, who is really gray, and does some wonderful things and some unscrupulous things, some for love, some for ambition. He is the one we may empathise with most. How did it feel to have him be the survivor of all of this?

In many ways, Zachary was my favourite character in all three books. The direction he took was very difficult for me to deal with. And yet, I think that’s the way it would have gone.
How close have you gotten to the poppy seed, for research purposes?

The thing about opium is that we all are very close to it. If you’ve ever taken any cough medicine, most of them have opium in it. Or if you have taken imodium, which people take for upset stomachs, it has opium in it. All of us are taking opium all the time, that’s the strange thing about opium. As a medicinal ingredient, opium is also matchless.
Yet there is the truth also that the British were overwhelming the Chinese with opium, flooding their markets.

Yes they were. Opium is like fire, it has to be very very carefully controlled. It’s a substance of such incredible power. It is very easy to be overwhelmed by it.
I thought that this was one of the real lessons of the book, the fallout of there being too much of one powerful element. And you have that great line about the difficulty of understanding other people’s despotisms.

That’s right. Look, there can be no doubt about it: that policy was really, incredibly wicked. They left them with no choice.
You have found a corner of history that people haven’t talked about, in this way. Was it the Opium War that took you to the trilogy?

No, not at all. The book began with Deeti, she was the central person in it. It was only looking into the central background of Deeti’s life that I came upon the whole background of opium. Suddenly, the opium became a sort of character of its own. It taught me how important opium was to India, not to speak of China, in the nineteenth century.
With Kesri you see a very different trajectory from Deeti. There is also this wonderful sense of this brother and sister (Deeti) running parallel to each other and missing each other.

Yes, in those days if you were on the frontier in Assam, to go back to Bihar could take you months. So much could happen, and so much did happen. Even now it happens like that.
Shireen Modi, the wealthy Parsi widow is one of the few women of that time with a sense of agency and a chance to go out and make a life for herself. Yet she is also like Deeti, who comes from very different circumstances. Was it tempting to put in a very middle-class character, or were they all extremes?

You have to remember that Shireen is wealthy, from Parsi society, if anyone who could do things like this it was her. It was possible. And in that time, there wasn’t really a middle class. It was all extremes, yes. In some sense, I’d say Kesri is middle class. So much of the middle class today actually has military roots.
That may be part of it, finally deciding to reclaim it and be proud of it?

I don’t know if we should be proud of it, but it’s there. We can’t escape it.
Do you speak to soldiers who have read the book?

I have had many interactions with soldiers, especially when I was doing more reporting. I spoke with soldiers all the time. Apart from that, my father was a soldier, so it’s not a life that was alien to me. However, it has to be said that nineteenth century soldiering was a completely different kettle of fish from modern day soldiering.
Was there ever a point when you were piecing together these primary accounts of military history, when you were looking for missing pieces which we might not even know about?

It was an incredible challenge. A great deal has been written about them, but strangely, there exists no military history of the opium wars. I had to do that whole work, of digging out the dispatches, the letters, the memoirs, collating the whole thing. Finding out exactly how many soldiers were there at this moment, how many guns they had.
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